Cats Urinating Outside of Litter Box
The two main reasons why cats urinate outside the litter box are infection and behavioral.
Bladder infection or cystitis will cause inflammation and thickening to the bladder wall which leads to urgency to urinate at abnormal locations. These infections may be caused by bacteria, bladder stones, or inflammation.
Behavioral urinations may be caused by stress and anxiety from possible factors such as stress from another pet, moving to a new home, new furniture or plants, or changes in activity in the house. In some cases, the cause may be from both infection and stress.
Urine laboratory tests can help determine the cause so proper treatment may be given to remedy the problem.
Article from Village Animal Clinic